• Anusha

What is Corona why it is a killer

Updated: Jul 28

History of Corona:

Coronaviruses or COVID-19 belong to the Corona Virinae which is the subfamily, in the nidovirales Corona Viridae family. There are four generations.

Alpha Coronavirus, Beta Coronavirus, Delta Coronavirus, and Gamma Coronavirus.

Coronaviruses are a single positive-sense in which RNA virus is mutation rate which is higher than DNA viruses and indicates a more effective survival adaption mechanism.

The genome codes at least 4 major proteins: membrane, nucleocapsid, envelope proteins, and other accessory proteins that help to replicative the process and facilitate entry into cells. COVID-19 can be divided into 3 categories they are

  • Category 1 [including human Coronavirus 229E [HCoV 229E] and transmissible gastric enteritis virus [TGEV],

  • Category 2 [including human Coronavirus-OC43 [HCoV-OC43], murine hepatitis virus [MHV], and bovine COVID [BCoV], and

  • Category 3 [including avian infectious bronchitis viruses [IBV].

Structure of Coronavirus

About Corona Virus:

COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered called coronavirus. This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. COVID-19 is now a pandemic affecting many countries globally.

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, which causes illness in animals or humans. In humans, several coronaviruses which cause the effect directly through respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

How it spreads through animals

COVID-19 gets transmitted from animals to a human who is generally found in pigs, camels, and bats, establishing a common host system. These viruses are various unwanted or by various means that they move from animals to humans who are closer to those animals that contain more susceptible through infection, thus forming the disease reservoir. At first, the expressions for Covid19 are not well expressed and as the mutation, replication which goes on as they produce to show syndromes. These viruses are transferred from one individual to another by cough, sneezing, shaking hands; and thus, settle themselves at the respiratory tract.

How it spreads through Humans:

People can catch COVID-19 from others who have the virus. The disease spreads primarily from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth, which are expelled when a person with COVID-19 coughs, sneezes or speaks. These droplets are relatively heavy, do not travel far and quickly sink to the ground. People can catch COVID-19 if they breathe in these droplets from a person infected with the virus. This is why it is important to stay at least 1 meter) away from others. These droplets can land on objects and surfaces around the person such as tables, doorknobs, and handrails.

During the end of 2019 and early 2020, there were only six human cases of COVID-19 which could infect humans and cause respiratory diseases such as HCOVID-19,229E, HCOVID-19-OC43, HCOVID-19-NL63, HKU1, SARS-COVID-19, and MES-COVID-19. SARS-COVID-19 and MERS-COVID-19 can cause serious respiratory syndrome.

Symptoms of COVID-19

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Other symptoms such as less common which affect some patients include aches and pains, nasal congestion, headache, conjunctivitis, sore throat, diarrhea, loss of taste or smell, or a rash on skin or discoloration of fingers or toes. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but only have very mild symptoms.

Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing hospital treatment. Around 1 out of every 5 people who get COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develop difficulty breathing. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like high blood pressure, heart and lung problems, diabetes, or cancer, are at higher risk of developing a serious illness. However, anyone can catch COVID-19 and become seriously ill.

People of all ages who experience fever and/or cough associated with difficulty breathing/shortness of breath, chest pain/pressure, or loss of speech or movement should seek medical attention immediately. If possible, it is recommended to call the health care provider or facility first, so the patient can be directed to the right clinic.

Prevention from COVID-19

Stay aware of the latest information on the COVID-19 outbreak, available on the WHO website, and through your national and local public health authority. Most countries around the world have seen cases of COVID-19 and many are experiencing outbreaks. Authorities in China and some other countries have succeeded in slowing their outbreaks. However, the situation is unpredictable so check regularly for the latest news.

You can reduce your chances of being infected or spreading COVID-19 by taking some simple precautions:

  • Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands.

  • Maintain at least 1-meter distance between yourself and others. Why? When someone coughs, sneezes, or speaks they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain the virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person has the disease.

  • Avoid going to crowded places. Why? Where people come together in crowds, you are more likely to come into close contact with someone that has COIVD-19 and it is more difficult to maintain a physical distance of 1 meter.

  • Avoid touching eyes, nose, and mouth. Why? Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose, or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and infect you.

  • Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately and wash your hands. Why? Droplets spread the virus. By following good respiratory hygiene, you protect the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu, and COVID-19.

  • Stay home and self-isolate even with minor symptoms such as cough, headache, mild fever, until you recover. Have someone bring you supplies. If you need to leave your house, wear a mask to avoid infecting others. Why? Avoiding contact with others will protect them from possible COVID-19 and other viruses.

  • If you have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention, health care to provide you the right health facility. This will also protect you and help prevent the spread of viruses and other infections.

Survival of virus:

The most important thing to know about coronavirus on surfaces is that they can easily be cleaned with common household disinfectants that will kill the virus. The COVID-19 virus can survive for up to 72 hours on plastic and stainless steel, less than 4 hours on copper, and less than 24 hours on cardboard.

As always clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth, or nose.

Countries that have affected with 2019 coronavirus

In the 1960s, COVID-19 was identified, initially exposed in chicken as infectious bronchitis virus and secondly from the nasal cavities of human patients with the common cold that was subsequently named as human COVID-19. Other family members of coronavirus were identified, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-corona virus [SARS-COVID-19] in 2003, Human corona virus-NL [HCOVID-19 NL63] in 2004, Human coronavirus-HKU1 [HCoV-HKU1] in 2005, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus [MERS-COVID-19] in 2012 and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus [SARS-COVID-19 [commonly known as 2019-N COVID-19novel Corona virus]. The detailed report of epidemic cases across the world.





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