• Anusha

The Story of Corona where it begin

History:


Coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1930s when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens was shown to be caused by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Arthur Schalk and M.C. Hawn described in 1931 a new respiratory infection of chickens in North Dakota. The infection of new-born chicks was characterized by gasping and listlessness. The chicks' mortality rate was 40–90%. Fred Beaudette and Charles Hudson six years later successfully isolated and cultivated the infectious bronchitis virus which caused the disease. In the 1940s, two more animal coronaviruses, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were isolated. It was not realized at the time that these three different viruses were related.


Image of coronavirus in 1930


The name "coronavirus" is derived from Latin corona, meaning "crown" or "wreath", itself a borrowing from Greek κορώνη korṓnē, "garland, wreath". The name was coined by June Almeida and David Tyrrell who first observed and studied human coronaviruses. The word was first used in print in 1968 by an informal group of virologists in the journal Nature to designate the new family of viruses. The name refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which has a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of the solar corona or halo. This morphology is created by the viral spike peplomers, which are proteins on the surface of the virus.


The name was coined by June Almeida and David Tyrrell



June Almeida first identified the coronavirus in 1964



About Coronavirus and what it is


Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, these viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses include some cases of the common cold (which is also caused by other viruses, predominantly rhinoviruses), while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Symptoms in other species vary: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. There are as yet no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.



Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause disease in animals. Seven, including the new virus, have made the jump to humans, but most just cause cold-like symptoms.


Covid-19 is closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which swept around the world from 2002 to 2003. That virus infected around 8,000 people and killed about 800 but it soon ran itself out, largely because most of those infected were seriously ill so it was easier to control.


Another coronavirus is Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), cases of which have been occurring sporadically since it first emerged in 2012 - there have been around 2,500 cases and nearly 900 deaths.


Covid-19 is different from these two other coronaviruses in that the spectrum of disease is broad, with around 80 percent of cases leading to a mild infection. There may also be many people carrying the disease and displaying no symptoms, making it even harder to control.



Structure of CoronaVirus


Coronaviruses are large, roughly spherical, particles with bulbous surface projections. The average diameter of the virus particles is around 125 nm (.125 μm). The diameter of the envelope is 85 nm and the spikes are 20 nm long. The envelope of the virus in electron micrographs appears as a distinct pair of electron-dense shells (shells that are relatively opaque to the electron beam used to scan the virus particle).


The viral envelope consists of a lipid bilayer, in which the membrane (M), envelope (E) and spike (S) structural proteins are anchored. The ratio of E: S: M in the lipid bilayer is approximately 1:20:300. On average a coronavirus particle has 74 surface spikes. A subset of coronaviruses also has a shorter spike-like surface protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).



How did the outbreak start?


The novel coronavirus outbreak, which began in Wuhan, China, in December, has expanded to touch nearly every corner of the globe. Hundreds of thousands of people around the world have been sickened and thousands of others have died.


The source of the coronavirus is believed to be a "wet market" in Wuhan which sold both dead and live animals including fish and birds.


Such markets pose a heightened risk of viruses jumping from animals to humans because hygiene standards are difficult to maintain if live animals are being kept and butchered on-site. Typically, they are also densely packed allowing the disease to spread from species to species.


The original host is thought to be bats. Bats were not sold at the Wuhan market but may have infected live chickens or other animals sold there. Bats are host to a wide range of zoonotic viruses including Ebola, HIV, and rabies.


The World Health Organization has declared the virus a global health emergency and rated COVID-19's global risk of spread and impact as "very high," the most serious designation.


Health authorities in China confirm that dozens of people in Wuhan, China, are being treated for pneumonia from an unknown source. Many of those sickened had visited a live animal market in Wuhan.





Inside Wuhan Market were dead and live animals where sold



Is the coronavirus airborne?


There is some debate about whether the disease is airborne – there is no evidence for it yet, but that could change. Airborne viruses linger for a longer period of time than those spread by droplets and can also be spread in air conditioning and ventilation systems.


The current advice is that the disease can only be spread between close contacts – defined as spending more than 15 minutes within 2m of an infected person.




How serious is the disease


According to data on the first 44,000 cases released by the Chinese authorities, 80 percent of cases are mild.


In roughly 14 percent of cases, the virus causes severe disease, including pneumonia, and shortness of breath. In about five percent of patients, it is critical, leading to respiratory failure, septic shock, and multiple organ failure.

According to the WHO, the death rate in Wuhan is two to four percent, whereas in the rest of China it is around 0.7 percent.

The death rate around the world varies greatly, and there are multiple reasons for this: experts believe it could be to do with the way deaths are counted, the age of the people affected, and the state of the health service in each country.




Who is at risk for coronavirus?


People of all ages can be infected by the new coronavirus (COVID19). Older people and people with pre-existing medical conditions (such as obesity, asthma, diabetes, and heart disease) appear to be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the virus.

WHO advises people of all ages to take steps to protect themselves from the virus, for example by following good hand hygiene and good respiratory hygiene?




Infection in humans


Coronaviruses vary significantly in the risk factors. Some can kill more than 30% of those infected, such as MERS-CoV, and some are relatively harmless, such as the common cold. Coronaviruses can cause colds with major symptoms, such as fever, and a sore throat from swollen adenoids. Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia(either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.) and bronchitis (either direct viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis). The human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.


Six species of human coronaviruses are known, with one species subdivided into two different strains, making seven strains of human coronaviruses altogether.

Four human coronaviruses produce symptoms that are generally mild:

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), β-CoV

Human corona virus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), β-CoV

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), α-CoV

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), α-CoV




Three human coronaviruses produce symptoms that are potentially severe:

The Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), β-CoV

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), β-CoV

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), β-CoV





Infection on Animals


Coronaviruses have been recognized as causing pathological conditions in veterinary medicine since the 1930s. They infect a range of animals including swine, cattle, horses, camels, cats, dogs, rodents, birds, and bats. The majority of animals related coronaviruses infect the intestinal tract and are transmitted by a fecal-oral route.

Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases meaning it jumps from animals to humans


First, it infects animals then it spreads to humans



How coronavirus came in Wuhan lab


In December 2019, cases of pneumonia associated with an unknown coronavirus were reported to health authorities in Wuhan. The Institute checked its coronavirus collection and found the new virus was 96 percent identical to a sample its researchers had taken from horseshoe bats in southwest China.


As the virus spread worldwide, the Institute continued its investigation. In February 2020, reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to the public databases for scientists around the world to understand, and publishing papers in Nature. On 19 February 2020, the lab released a letter on its website describing how they successfully obtained the whole virus genome: "On the evening of December 30, 2019, after receiving the unexplained pneumonia samples sent by Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, our institute organized the strength overnight and worked for 72 hours to solve the problem.


On January 2, 2020, the whole genome sequence of the new coronavirus was determined". In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus in vitro in a move that raised concerns regarding intellectual property rights. The WIV said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"


Wuhan lab where experiments are done where 1,200 viruses have been stored


In February, they published work concluding that the new virus shared a 79.6 percent sequence identity to the SARS coronavirus and that it was 96 percent identical at the whole-genome level to a coronavirus found in bats.


The lab's researchers had already conducted extensive investigations on the links between bats and disease outbreaks in China and had highlighted the need to prepare for viruses potentially spreading out of their natural reservoirs into human communities


Wuhan lab had three live bats of coronavirus


Some of the top leaders have affected the deadly coronavirus


This deadly disease called coronavirus has not only affected the common people but the world’s top leaders who have affected the coronavirus


  • Britain

Prince Charles


The next in line to the Royal throne tested positive for COVID-19 on March 25th, 2020. According to the New York Times, the last time he met with his mother, Queen Elizabeth II, was on March 12, and the earliest he could have contracted the virus was the day after. On April 1, he tested negative and announced his recovery.


In a startling claim, Union Minister of State for AYUSH Shripad Naik on Thursday said that a Bengaluru-based health resort has cured Prince Charles, an heir to the British throne, of coronavirus with the use of Ayurveda and Homeopathy.


Dr. Mathai to cure Prince Charles of COVID-19 would be studied by a special task force appointed by his ministry to develop and propagate alternative medicine.



Boris Johnson

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson was the next in Britain and the world to announce he had tested positive for the contagion virus on 27th March. Johnson reportedly shook hands with COVID patients in one of the country’s (NHS) National Health Service hospitals he was making a vigilant round of. Johnson joined back the 10; Downing Street on 29th April 2020.


He thanked the ministers who stood in for him while he was away, as well as the people for their “sheer grit and guts.”


Health Minister Nadine Dorries and Health Secretary Matthew Hancock too tested positive for the Coronavirus.



  • Iran


According to the Jerusalem Post, at least 24 members of parliament have contracted the virus, and two have died: Fatemeh Rahbar, from Tehran, and Mohammad Ali Ramezani, from Gilan.



  • Canada

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s wife Sophie Trudeau tested positive for COVID-19, leading to a reactionary chain of self-isolation among all the people in the administration she was in contact with, including PM Justin Trudeau.




Israel

Country’s Health Minister Yaakov Litzman tested positive for COVID-19, hampering Israel’s fight against coronavirus because he was leading the task force heading the matters for the same. On April 20, Litzman announced his recovery from COVID-19.



  • Italy

The leaders from the currently third-worst hit nation by COVID-19 paid a heavy price to the vile pandemic. Giorgio Valoti, mayor of Cene municipality in Lombardy region died of Coronavirus on March 13. Another leader Robert Scylla, leading the fight against COVID-19 in Varese municipality in the same Lombardy region succumbed to COVID-19 on March 11.


Nicola Zingaretti, the head of the Italian Democratic Party, one among the ruling coalition of Italy had also tested positive for coronavirus.



  • Spain

The second-worst hit nation by coronavirus pandemic has been taken aback by the scale of the pandemic in itself. Country’s Deputy Prime Minister Carmen Calvo on March 25th. She recovered from the infection on April 15.


Begoña Gómez, the wife of Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez also tested positive which like Canada, led to a chain of quarantining procedures in-place for her direct contacts including the Prime Minister.


Country’s Equality Minister Irene Montero was the first in the cabinet to test positive for coronavirus on March 12. She also recovered in early April.



  • USA

Two members of the New York State Assembly, Helene Weinstein, and Charles Barron tested positive for the coronavirus, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced on March 14. The third positive case from the assembly – Assemblywoman Kimberly Jean-Pierre, was reported by the Politico on March 19th.


Senator Rand Paul, of Republican Party from Kentucky, became the first U.S. senator to test positive for the coronavirus on March 23rd.


The first Congressperson to contract the virus was, Florida Representative Mario Diaz-Balart of Republican Party on March 18. On the same day, Democrat representative from Utah Ben McAdams also tested positive for coronavirus.




  • Germany

The head of Germany’s Christian Democratic Union party, Freidrich Merz, tested positive for coronavirus on March 17th.



  • Nigeria

The country has close to 2,000 coronavirus patients, but just 4 ventilators per million people, the leaders have contracted COVID-19 in the biggest economy of Africa too.

Abba Kyari, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari’s chief of staff, tested positive for COVID-19 in mid-March


Bala Mohammed, the Governor of Nigeria’s Bauchi state also tested positive for coronavirus on March 24th.



  • Australia

Australian Minister for Home Affairs Peter Dutton tested positive for coronavirus earlier in March. He announced his recovery in late March



  • Russia

The country is the latest to breach the 100,000 patient counts in the world, having recorded the sharpest spike, globally, in the previous two weeks. Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin was reported to have tested positive of COVID-19 on Thursday.



Covid-19 has spread around the planet, sending billions of people into lockdown as health services struggle to cope. Find out where the virus has spread, and where it has been most deadly.


WHO has declared coronavirus has affected in the countries



Covid-19 has spread around the planet, sending billions of people into lockdown as health services struggle to cope. Find out where the virus has spread, and where it has been most deadly.


Coronavirus updates


Confirmed cases

6,171,836


Deaths

372,120

Recovered

1,881,184


Since first being recorded late last year in China, the Covid-19 coronavirus has spread around the world and been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. However, differences in testing mean that the number of cases may be understated for some countries.


  • Confirmed cases of Covid-19 for selected countries



  • Confirmed deaths of Covid-19 for selected countries

The number of deaths is a more dependable indicator. The disease has hit certain countries, including Italy, Spain, the UK, and the US, with particular cruelty.


  • Confirmed cases of Covid-19 in Asia

Meanwhile, in Asia, where the disease began, the spread continues, although in China it seems, for now, to have passed its peak.


  • Confirmed cases of Covid-19 in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa




  • Confirmed cases of Covid-19



  • Confirmed deaths from Covid-19



  • Confirmed recovered from Covid-19



Anusha

promo@p66.me

www.p66.me

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