• Srilalitha


Updated: Jul 22

Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas of Walt Disney Studios first introduced “The 12 Basic Principles of Animation” in their 1981 book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation.

The 12 Basic Principles of Animation are:

1. SQUASH AND STRETCH - The most important principle, “squash and stretch” gives a sense of weight and volume to drawn objects. It is best described with a bouncing ball, which appears stretched when falling and squashed when it hits the ground.

2. ANTICIPATION – Is the first part of making an action while animating, communicates what is going to happen. Anticipation can be called as the preparation for an action.

3. Staging - Poses and actions, arrangement of cameras, background and stage elements shall clearly demonstrate character's temper, reaction, character's attitude to a story and continuity of the plotline.

4. STRAIGHT - AHEAD ACTION AND POSE-TO-POSE-The animator draws one frame, then the next, and so on until the scene is complete.

5. FOLLOWUP THROUGH AND OVERLAPPING ACTION - Overlapping action implies that not everything happens at the same time.

6. SLOW IN AND SLOW OUT - Slow-in and Slow-out are techniques for altering the speed of object movements.

7. ARCS Everything in nature will tend to move in arcs. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow. The Disney dudes basically decided that everything looks better if it all moves according to arcs, so be warned! Straight linear movement is a no-no!

8. SECONDARY ACTION The second group consists of performances or actions that are secondary to the main idea of the shot.

9. TIMING Timing refers to the number of frames used to create an action or part of an action.

10. EXAGGERATION Exaggeration is used in animation for visual effect.

11. SOLID DRAWING - is the ability to draw a character with consideration of the 3-dimensional reality – weight, volume, balance, anatomy, light, gradient, shadows.

12. APPEAL Giving a character a dynamic design can greatly boost its appeal,

Conclusion: These principles establish the foundation of all animation work and are appropriate for a number of contrasting fields.





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