• Srilalitha


Updated: Sep 17, 2020

Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas of Walt Disney Studios first introduced “The 12 Basic Principles of Animation” in their 1981 book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation.

The 12 Basic Principles of Animation are:

1. Squash and Stretch – it the most important principle, to drawn objects it gives a sense of weight and volume. The best example to explain, “Squash and stretch” is with a bouncing ball, it appears which gives a sense of weight and volume to drawn objects. It is best described with a bouncing ball that appears stretched when falling and squashed when it hits the ground.

2. Anticipation – while animating, anticipation is the first part and communicates what is going to happen. The preparation for action is another name for “Anticipation”

3. Staging – in this principle the idea of a presentation is completely and unmistakably clear. In staging story and continuity of the plotline clearly demonstrate a character’s temper, poses, and actions, camera arrangement, stage elements and background, reaction, character’s attitude.

4. Straight-Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose - until the scene is completed the animator draws one frame, then the next, and so on. In animation, the term Straight ahead refers to a method which uses the first key pose of a character only, and then to create the desired motion of the character by drawing continuously.

5. Follow-Through and Overlapping Action – even after a motion is completed certain body parts and attachment might continue to move this are known as Follow-through and in Overlapping action; the idea is to move the different parts of the body at different rates. For example, when you walk the speed of your head will move differently from your arms. Both overlapping action and follow-through convince motion to animation.

6. . Slow In and Slow Out – the movements of an object alters the speed by the technique of slow-in and slow-out. If an object moves slowly it decelerates into a key frame in “Slow In” action. And if an object moves faster, an action accelerates out of a key frame in the “Slow Out” action.

7. Arcs – Every move in nature is tended by arcs – For better flow, and for a more natural action we use Arcs. The straight linear movement doesn’t look good so if the moves are done according to arcs the action will look perfect.

8. Secondary Action – an action that results directly from primary action is called secondary action. To add realistic complexity to the animation secondary actions are very important. Secondary motion is the other name for Secondary animation.

9. Timing – the number of frames between two poses is called Timing in animation. For slow and smooth action more frames between poses are used and for faster and crisper action fewer frames are used. To give interest to the movement and texture to the scene a mixture of slow and fast timing animation is used. To create an action or part of an action Timing animation is referred.

10. Exaggeration – to give pose, expression, or to add more appeal to an action Exaggeration principle is used. Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston was the first to introduce this principle. For visual effects in animation, Exaggeration is used. To look at an action more extreme and surreal exaggeration is used. To make actions stronger you use exaggeration animation.

11. Solid Drawing – Volume, Weight, and Balance are the three-dimensional drawing looks in Solid drawing in the animation principle. With the help of solid drawing, you can draw any side of a figure in animation. To render a three-dimensional character in two-dimensional space, it is done by solid drawing.

12. Appeal – to make the character or design stand out we use Appeal animation principles. When appeal animation is added to the design it generates interest and viewers to feel as realistic. Through posing or exaggeration, by pushing elements of the character this can be done by appealing animation. To capture the audience’s interest a clear visual design is created that doesn’t mean that everything is fluffy and cute. To look enjoyable every character and object, hero or villain, every vehicle and building we do this by appeal animation.

Conclusion: In contrasting fields, the foundations of all animation works are established by these principles.





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